shining gameday cracker “But it’s all said and everyone knows now. We have to give everything on the pitch and I think we did that at Everton.”Sunday’s opponents Chelsea have won all of their games coming into the clash, with Maurizio Sarri implementing his style of football perfectly at Stamford Bridge thus far.Having been involved in 80% of the Hammers’ goals so far in the league this season, Arnautovic will surely be the man to stop for the Blues. Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury 2 2 tense Latest Premier League News There were fears last weekend Manuel Pellegrini’s men could be going into the game against the Blues after suffering five straight Premier League defeats.However, a wonderful display against Everton last Sunday saw the Hammers leave Goodison Park with all three points after securing a 3-1 win.And talisman Arnautovic has revealed a dressing room bust-up in the wake of their late defeat to Wolves spurred the team on.“The manager came into the dressing room after the game. He wasn’t happy. He was angry with our performance,” Arnautovic said. England’s most successful clubs of the past decade, according to trophies won “We sat there and he kept talking. Then he went out to do interviews. We had it out among ourselves. What had to be said was said. It was good.“It was heated in there. I was the captain, so yes, I was involved. There were voices raised. You can’t keep losing and say nothing.“Everybody had to understand we are a club with a big history and tradition, and we can’t be where we are in the table. We needed to be hard on ourselves.“It is not about the manager. He gives us the details – it’s up to us to follow them. Adama Traore’s late winner condemned West Ham to a fourth straight Premier League defeat REVEALED Premier League Team of the Season so far, including Liverpool and Leicester stars Marko Arnautovic reveals a furious dressing room bust-up after a crushing defeat to Wolves helped get West Ham United’s season up and running.The Hammers take on Chelsea at the London Stadium at 1.30pm, a game you can hear exclusively live for free on talkSPORT. Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? silverware no dice Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won Green reveals how he confronted Sarri after Chelsea’s 6-0 defeat at Man City REVEALED Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT Son ban confirmed as Tottenham fail with appeal to overturn red card huge blow Arnautovic scored one and set up another in the victory over Everton
Tunnels with rotating gates and rocker switches – this sounds like mechanical engineering. It’s the machinery that helps power your brain, reported scientists from UCLA and the Pasteur Institute. Their paper in Science described the structure of just one of many kinds of membrane channels.1 Cell membranes are lined with elaborate one-way gates. This one binds a sodium ion to a galactose sugar molecule and brings it inside the cell. It’s a key player in the process that brings fuel to the brain. Karpowich and Wang brought it home in their review of the paper in the same issue of Science:2The average Western adult metabolizes hundreds of grams of carbohydrates per day, half of which is used as an energy source for the brain. To benefit from these ingested carbohydrates, they must first be broken down into simple sugars, such as glucose, and absorbed through the epithelial cells of the intestine. The glucose must then be reabsorbed in the kidneys. On page 810 of this issue, Faham et al. report a major advance in elucidating the molecular mechanism by which this highly effective absorption is realized.The wording in this statement reveals the stage that molecular biology is in. Scientists have known about the chemistry of biological processes for decades. Only now, however, are scientists revealing the mechanics behind that chemistry. And mechanics it is: the paper describes gates made of protein that rotate open and closed to let the proper molecules in. Other gates that are members of some of the other 250 families of membrane transporters use other mechanisms. One of them in a simplified illustration in Karpowich and Wang’s review looks like a rocker switch: the cargo drops into a V-shaped mechanism, which when properly authenticated, inverts into an upside-down V and ejects the cargo outside the cell. The sodium galactose transporter studied by Faham et al looks more like a cylindrical gumball machine. As the outside gate rotates, the cargo drops in. Once safely enclosed, the inside gate rotates open and out falls the cargo into the cytoplasm. Faham et al described this an “alternating-access mechanism.” Since they act as one-way gates, Karpowich and Wang called these “symmetric transporters for asymmetric transport.” What did the scientists think of these clever machines? For one thing, the researchers noticed that there are other families of transporters that use similar mechanical methods, but have nothing in common in terms of their protein sequences. “This structural homology is surprising,” they said. “….These findings support classification of proteins using criteria such as topological arrangement, molecular function, and unique structural features involved in mechanism, rather than solely on the basis of primary sequence.” The statement implies that evolutionary relationships are less useful in classifying the machines than functional descriptions. In fact, evolution was never mentioned in either paper. 1. Faham, Watanabe et al, “The Crystal Structure of a Sodium Galactose Transporter Reveals Mechanistic Insights into Na+/Sugar Symport,” Science, 8 August 2008: Vol. 321. no. 5890, pp. 810-814, DOI: 10.1126/science.1160406.2. Karpowich and Wang, “Symmetric Transporters for Asymmetric Transport,” Science, 8 August 2008: Vol. 321. no. 5890, pp. 781-782, DOI: 10.1126/science.1161495.Riddle: where would Darwinism go if it entered a cell by one of these transporter machines? Answer: first, it would be tagged as foreign and dangerous contraband. Then, a kinesin would carry it down a microtubule to a proteasome, where it would be cut up into little bits, then ejected outside where it belongs. Where would Intelligent Design go? It doesn’t need the transporter, because it’s already in the nucleus, encoded as DNA.(Visited 8 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
“We are pre-ordering equipment such as the synthesis reactor that has very long delivery times,” he said, adding that this would ensure the fastest possible implementation of the first phase of the project. The project will also result in increased production of medium waxes, mostly used for the candle industry in southern Africa, as well as liquid paraffins used in a variety of industrial applications. Construction of the first phase is expected to be completed in 2011, with the second phase expected to be in full operation in 2013. Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material According to the statement, Sasol Wax is the world’s leading producer and marketer of synthetic and petroleum-derived waxes, with production facilities in South Africa, North America, and Europe. “This investment will be in line with Sasol’s strategy to leverage our advanced proprietary technology,” said Sasol chemical cluster GM Reiner Groh. Advanced technology “Once fully approved, the project will be implemented in phases in line with the projected growth in key markets for hard wax,” Sasol Wax MD Johan du Preez said in a statement this week. The synthetic waxes, which are manufactured via Sasol’s advanced proprietary technology in South Africa, are used in a wide variety of specialised applications, including hot-melt adhesives, polymers, inks and high performance bitumen modifiers. The funds will go toward completing basic engineering for the operation, as well as for ordering long-lead items for the first phase of the two-phase expansion project. “It also fits with our longer term plans to significantly grow the chemicals businesses of the Sasol group.” 16 September 2008 SAinfo reporter South African petrochemical company Sasol has approved R558-million for Sasol Wax to double production of hard wax at its facility in Sasolburg, south of Johannesburg.